The gonads are the bodies in charge of the formation of gametes. The term has its etymological root in the Greek word gonḗ, which translates as “generation”. Gametes, on the other hand, are the sex cells (female and male) that, when they unite, generate the zygote of animals and plants.
The female gonads are the ovaries, which produce and segregate ovules (the female gamete) and various hormones. In humans, these gonads are paired structures that are linked to the uterus and the wall of the pelvis.
Before the appearance of a tumor in the ovaries, it is possible that the woman undergoes a oophorectomy, a surgical procedure performed to remove one or both gonads. When both ovaries are removed, the person enters menopause as they cannot produce any more. ovules. It should be noted that oophorectomy can also be carried out in a sex change process.
The testicles, on the other hand, are the male gonads. With oval shape, the function of these glands is the segregation of sperm (the male gamete) and sex hormones.
Every men has two testicles that are in a bag called scrotum, located below the base of the penis. In the testes are the seminiferous ducts, which produce sperm and communicate with the excretory ducts.
The anorchia It is a disorder that leads to the child being born without testicles. Another medical condition is cryptorchidism, with which the testicles do not descend from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum. Among the problems that can be registered specifically in the testicles or in the scrotum, appear the Cancer testicular and the hydrocele.
Another known disorder is called hypogonadism, and is characterized by little or no production of hormones by the sex glands of the body. Depending on what happens to a man or a woman, the problem takes place in the testicles or the ovaries, respectively.
Hypogonadism can have a primary or secondary cause. In the first case, the functioning of the gonads is not correct, and this can occur for several reasons, such as:
* suffering from an autoimmune disorder;
* complications in the developing and in the genes;
* presence of an infection that is related to the sexual organ;
* certain kidney or liver diseases;
* radiation exposure;
* consequence of some surgery;
Among the genetic disorders that most frequently cause this problem of the gonads are the syndrome Klinefelter’s and Turner’s, in men and women, respectively. People with autoimmune disorders (such as type 1 diabetes or one that affects the adrenal glands or liver, for example) are more likely to experience autoimmune damage to the sex glands.
With regard to hypogonadism due to a secondary cause, the problem is located in the parts of the brain that are responsible for controlling the gonads, that is, the hypothalamus and pituitary, which do not function properly. In this case, Causes they can be the following:
* anorexia nervosa;
* bleeding in the area of the pituitary;
* any medication, such as an opioid or glucocorticoid;
* stop taking anabolic steroids after a long time;
* genetic disorders;
* any infection;
* poor nutrition;
* excessive consumption of iron;
* dramatic loss of weight, both for the magnitude and for the speed;
* presence of a malignant tumor.
One of the treatments The most common for this problem in the gonads consists of taking medications indicated by the doctor, such as estrogens, progesterone and testosterone. They can be administered in pill, gel or patch form, among other formats.