It is known as geodynamics to the analysis of the changes that occur in the crust of planet Earth. This study, which is carried out within the framework of the geology, contemplates both the causes that lead to said modifications and the effects of these alterations.
It is possible to distinguish between external geodynamics (which refers to the exogenous processes of the earth’s crust) and the internal geodynamics (linked to endogenous processes). In this context, geodynamics works with different agents that affect the variations.
In the case of external geodynamics, the intervening agents are external to the Earth’s surface. These are usually climatic factors such as Water or the wind, which interact with the outermost layers of the planet. These agents usually alter the relief, eroding it. The human being, the animals and the floors they are also involved with external geodynamics.
Internal geodynamics, for its part, focuses on the changes registered in the internal structure of the planet, caused by forces whose action occurs within the Earth. The movement of the magma, the formation of igneous rocks, the earthquakes and the geological faults they are among the questions studied by geodynamics of this type.
The development of internal geodynamics is supported by a series of techniques named geophysical or prospecting. The science known as geophysics is the one that focuses on the observation of the Earth taking into account the principles of physics to study the phenomena that are linked to its evolutionary history, its structure and its physical conditions. Among the techniques of this type that are used most frequently in the field of geodynamics are the following:
* measures of Gps (Global Positioning System) high precision;
* seismology, a branch of geophysics focused on studying earthquakes and the way in which seismic waves that occur inside and on the planet’s surface propagate;
* structural geological studies following specific steps and techniques that allow obtaining highly accurate data;
* record of the date and time of the rock samples obtained;
* simulation of processes By computer.
The most significant advance for internal geodynamics took place between the 1960s and 1980s: scientists accepted the Tectonic plates (also called geotectonics), a concept that is based on the theory of continental drift. The latter was developed by the German geophysicist Alfred Wegener in 1912 and describes the displacement of the continental masses focusing on the relationship that each one of them had with the others.
On the other hand we have the concept of internal geodynamic agents, those that arise in the asthenosphere (the highest area of the Earth’s mantle) or in the upper mantle (the inner layer of the planet that is closest to the surface). In general, these agents produce an increase in the relief of the Earth’s surface, since they act from within, and have the power to generate displacements opposite to the force of gravity. There are also the internal magmatic agents (the rocks that arise when the magma cools and solidifies) and the external ones (the magmas that reach the surface).
It can be said, in short, that geodynamics studies formation and degradation processes that determine the characteristics of the earth’s crust, such as the relief and distribution of the earth and the seas. As the name implies, geodynamics develops with a dynamic model on a global scale, since the Earth it changes according to how the endogenous and exogenous processes in question develop.