The Greek word geōdaisía, which can be translated as “Division of the land”, it arrived in Spanish as geodesy. This is the name given to the scientific specialty focused on the determination of the magnitude and the figure of the globe.
Geodesy is linked to representation of the land surface, either partial or global, with its artificial structures and natural forms. From the geodetic knowledge, it is possible to trace maps, for examples.
Thanks to the theories, calculations and geodesy measurements, the necessary references are obtained for the development of urban planning, cadastre, navigation and geographic information systems, among other issues.
In other words, the contributions of geodesy have a positive impact on the developing other geosciences. This concept is also known as Earth sciences, and is defined precisely as the set of disciplines of the natural sciences (which study the functioning of everything that surrounds us living beings), especially those that focus on the observation of form, dynamics and of the evolution of our planet.
Another field that benefits from the results of geodesy is the geomatics (also called geospatial technology or geomatic engineering), the science that is responsible for the administration of data through the use of information and communication technologies. The information processing carried out by geomatics is made up of several stages, which are obtaining, modeling, treatment, protection, consultation, analysis, representation and dissemination of geodesy, information systems geographic and remote sensing.
The origins of geodesy lie in middle East. There in the Antiquity, began to develop a body of knowledge for the division of the properties in parcels. Roman surveyors took these formulas for calculating areas. In GreeceMeanwhile, the first geodetic instrument, known as a diopter, was devised.
Scientific advances allowed the creation of the modern geodesy. With the launch of artificial satellites, the development of systems positioning and navigation.
Geodesy, in short, has the purpose of determining the dimensions and shape of the planet Earth, taking into account its gravity field and temporal changes. In general, the States have special agencies dedicated to establishing and updating the geodetic reference frames, essential for the creation of cartography, the development of engineering works (such as the construction of dams or roads) and the investigation of hydrocarbons.
The gravity field It is one of the fundamental themes of theoretical geodesy, and this encompasses both the observation and the description of it and the changes it goes through in time. Precisely, the field of gravity undergoes certain alterations due to the rotational movement of the Earth, as well as those of the other planets.
On the other hand, we speak of physical geodesics, where measurements of the Earth’s surface have relevance, which are represented by points in triangulation networks. Thanks to the accuracy that geodesy provides to scientists, it is possible to project these points on a geometric surface for study from the math. A rotational or reference ellipsoid (a curved surface made up of three orthogonal elliptical sections) is often used for this purpose. There are some ellipsoids that were originally conceived with the goal of being used to study a single country, but which eventually came to be applied to a continent or even the entire planet.