The geocentrism is an ancient theory of astronomy who argued that the planet Earth It was him Center of the universe. The Greek mathematician and astronomer Claudius Ptolemy was its main driver in the 2nd century.
According to the foundations of geocentrism, the sun and the rest of the stars revolve around the Earth. This was the most widely accepted astronomical theory until century XVI, when the heliocentrism (which places the sun in the center) began to prevail thanks to the contributions of Nicolaus Copernicus. Today, science has shown that, indeed, the Earth revolves around the Sun, although there are still people who believe in geocentrism.
The theory of geocentrism was present in many civilizations of the antiquity. One of the most prominent examples was in Babylon, an ancient city located in the Lower mesopotamia (area that is also known by the name of Lower Mesopotamia), located between the city’s own settlement and the mouth of the Tigris and the Euphrates, two important rivers. The geocentric view of the universe that prevailed in Babylon was completed in the second century with the work of Claudius Ptolemy.
Several centuries BCThinkers like Anaximander already postulated the geocentric theory; in this case, defining the planet like a cylinder floating in the center of the universe. At that time, other philosophers considered that the Earth it was a sphere, but not located in the center. The combination of both positions led to the development of geocentrism.
This means that already in the philosophy and astronomy of ancient greece geocentrism was widely accepted. In this framework we must talk about pre-Socratic philosophy, that is to say, from the period that began with the very birth of Greek philosophy and ended with the manifestations that have been influenced by the thought of Socrates. Throughout that time, to complement the idea of the Earth in the shape of a cylinder, it was believed that the other planets, the Moon and the Sun were hollow in wheels imperceptible to the eye, that surrounded our planet, and that through them people could see the flames of a fire hidden.
The vision of the Earth as a sphere belonged to the followers of the philosophical and religious movement created by Pythagoras of Samos, who identify themselves with the name of Pythagoreans. According to them, our planet was not in the center of the universeBut it was moving around an invisible fire. As mentioned above, there came a time in history when these two ideas merged.
Plato Y Aristotle, one of his disciples, among other thinkers, spread geocentrism in the fourth century BC, both orally and in writing. Ptolemy continued his research work with his work entitled “The Almagest”, and made various corrections, making his model was accepted by most astronomers. That is why the ptolemaic model with the geocentric model in general.
In The Almagest, whose original name is in Arabic and is translated as “mathematical composition”, we find the catalog of stars broader of antiquity. It was used by the Arabs and later by the Europeans until the Middle Ages, as it contains a considerable volume of information, including the relative motion of the planets and stars, as well as a description of the geocentric system.
Beyond that indicated by the science Today, geocentrism is maintained in certain areas. For the creation of planetariums or the study of stars that are outside the solar system, geocentrism is still valid since it simplifies the work. Some Religious fanatics, on the other hand, they make a literal interpretation of the sacred books and still locate the Earth in the center of the universe.