A pipeline is a very long and thick pipe that allows transporting a gas fuel over a long distance. It is common for the gas pipeline to start in a natural reservoir and then go to a distribution center.
Also called gas pipeline, a gas pipeline enables gas to circulate at high pressure. Generally, gas pipelines are pipes that are buried at a depth of between 1 and 2 meters. In some cases, however, these pipes develop over the surface.
In this context, the unit of pressure known as Pub, which is equivalent to a million bars, the Unit which is defined as the pressure exerted by a force of a dyne over a space of one square centimeter. The unit of force called dyne is equivalent to 10 newtons to the minus 5, or the force that when applied to a mass of one gram passes an acceleration of one centimeter per second squared.
In the basic network, gas usually circulates through the gas pipeline with a Pressure from 72 bar. To reach households, in the urban distribution network the pressure is reduced to 16 bar.
Although the regulations governing their creation and operation may vary from country to country, gas pipelines must respect various criteria for reasons of safety. The installation of valves that allow the flow to be interrupted every certain intervals in the event of an accident (such as a leak that negatively affects the gas pressure) and of sensors that can detect eventual leaks and the creation of compression stations are some of the measures usual.
These compression stations must be placed along the pipeline, at a specific distance from each other, in cases where the pipeline is very long. This security measure is usually complemented with the installation of fiber optic cables that allow the transmission of information on the status of the gas pipeline so that operators can detect the leaks on time. The construction of roads to facilitate access to the points where the leaks occur, as well as the installation of fire fighting equipment and emergency stations are also statutory.
To minimize the environmental impact of the gas pipelines, the construction process undergoes various inspections. Then the paw print produced by the installation of the gas pipeline on the ground.
Typically, the pipeline begins near a sea port through which ships carrying the liquefied natural gas (LNG), the natural gas that has gone through the necessary process for its transportation in liquid state. Its starting point can be a regasification plant or a field, although sometimes they are installed to connect gas plants with others that are dedicated to bottling and are located in the city.
Other purposes that lead to the construction of a gas pipeline are the distribution along a net certain pipes (which can be found in a city, a factory or a consumer center) and the filling of cylinders.
There are two fundamental techniques to draw a gas pipeline through a river: drilling horizontal and directed. They serve to avoid any disturbance in the fauna and flora of the place. They can also be applied to traverse rail lines, highways and highways.
The longest gas pipeline in the world is located in China. With an extension of more than 8000 kilometers, was inaugurated at the end of 2012 and required an investment of about $ 22.570 million. Is line allows to transport close to 30 billion cubic meters of gas annually.