Lightning, with origin in the Latin word radius, is the name given to the line born where a certain type of energy is produced and which continues in the same direction where it is radiated.
According to the class of Energy, it is possible to distinguish between different rays. The gamma raysIn this sense, they are formed by waves that are generated from the annihilation of particles or through a nuclear transition.
This ionizing radiation, which has a great penetrating power and a high energy level, it is formed by photons, whose energy is estimated in a unit known as megaelectronvolts or MeV. Due to their properties, gamma rays can cause significant alterations in cell nuclei.
Gamma rays can be generated through various processes or produced spontaneously in space. In the latter case, when they arise from the nuclei of an active galaxy or from a supernova, the rays do not reach the Land as they are absorbed by the atmosphere. However, they can be observed using telescopes located in space.
The most frequent use of gamma rays is in the sterilization. This radiation can be used to kill bacteria from food or to sterilize instruments used in medicine.
Gamma rays are also used for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases and disorders. As these rays can change the structure of cells and cause cancer, their use requires great control.
Gamma ray buds
Also known simply by its acronym BRG, or its equivalent in English, GRB, gamma ray bursts are flashes of this type of rays that are associated with explosions of considerable energy in galaxies that are at great distances. These are the most luminous electromagnetic events that take place in outer space. With regard to its duration, it can be as short as a few nanoseconds or as long as a few hours; the normal thing, on the other hand, is that it does not exceed a few seconds.
Gamma ray bursts often precede an afterglow, which lasts for a long time and has a radiation at longer wavelengths (radio frequency, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, visible light and X-rays). Some specialists assure that, in general, gamma ray outbreaks are beams of intense radiation whose rays are oriented in parallel (this is technically called collimated light). Furthermore, they are believed to be produced by a supernova.
A supernova is understood to be a stellar explosion that sometimes manifests itself very clearly in regions of the celestial sphere in which observers had not detected any. body in particular.
Gamma ray astronomy
Gamma ray astronomy is known as the study of the universe by means of this type of rays, defined in previous paragraphs. Since the atmosphere of our planet does not allow gamma radiation, the first astronomers to observe gamma photons needed rockets and probe balloons; at that time, they could not make very extensive observations, something that has completely changed with the creation of the artificial satellites.
To detect this type of radiation it is necessary to use devices large (similar to the Geiser counter, an instrument for measuring radioactivity levels), whose manufacture involves the assembly of metal plates of considerable thickness.
Gamma rays often arise from black holes, high-speed collisions, particle jets, or supernova explosions, among others. phenomena of similar magnitude, and for this reason some sources refer to gamma ray astronomy using the name of violent universe astronomy.