To the fact of faking it is called falsification. The verb falsify, meanwhile, refers to deny a postulate through experiments or tests.
The idea of falsification appears in the field of science with reference to process that allows contradicting or refuting a theory. It is the pillar of philosophical doctrine that is known as falsificationism.
What can be falsified (that is, that can be falsified) is falsifiable. The condition of falsifiable, meanwhile, it receives the name of falsifiability.
Following this reasoning, the falsificationism locates falsifiability as the principle that allows differentiate between the scientific and the unscientific. This current driven by the Austrian Karl Popper argues that when a theory can be falsified, it is scientific, because it can be tested and thus confirmed or disproved with experiments.
When trying to achieve the falsification of a hypothesis with a counterexample, it is contrasted. If the rebuttal is not achieved, the hypothesis is considered to be proven and accepted. In any case, it is important to know that the confirmation that is achieved through empirical evidence is never taken as definitive: validity, according to falsificationism, is provisional.
Keep in mind that falsification is used as demarcation criterion to differentiate between scientific and non-scientific character. It has nothing to do, therefore, with the truth of the statement, but with the possibility that it is falsified.