The expressionism is a literary and artistic trend who was born on German territory at the beginning of twentieth century, whose principles are based on expressing the emotions instead of trying to capture reality. This movement is a reaction to impressionism, which pretends to represent the impression that the real produces in sight.
It can be said that expressionism is a way of understanding the art. Painters, writers, photographers, choreographers, filmmakers and musicians, among other artists, embraced expressionism and turned to demonstrations where inner vision excels from the creator.
For Expressionism, what is important is the subjective expression of what it feels like and not describing reality objectively. In fact, their plays sometimes they are constituted as a distortion of the real plane.
The defense of individual freedom, interest in issues that are considered taboo and the predominance of passion and emotion are some of the pillars of expressionism, which encompassed various styles.
Edvard munch, Vasili Kandinski, Paul klee and Amedeo Modigliani are some of the artists who are usually mentioned as references of expressionism since their works express feelings and are not limited to representing what the senses.
It should be noted that, according to specialists, traits of expressionism could already be observed in painters who lived before the twentieth century, What Bosco (1450-1516), El greco (1541-1614) and Francisco de Goya (1746-1828). After the Second World War, the movement was disappearing as such, although its influence extended to Neo-Expressionism, Abstract Expressionism and other trends.
Let’s see below some of the characteristics of expressionism:
* subjectivity: in general, when we speak of expressionism we think of a deformation of reality in order to reflect the subjectivity of the human being. This is opposed to a faithful copy of reality or an “impression” of it, as occurs in impressionism, since it proposes to look beyond the outer layer;
* historic context: It is important to understand that expressionism emerged along the so-called Historical vanguards, at the beginning of the 20th century and before the First World War broke out. It was then that a rejection of positivist philosophy began to spread (which relied on the advances and progress of science to lead society), and this was reflected in a pessimistic attitude and a loss of values that is clearly appreciated through expressionism;
* styleAlthough the aesthetics that can be appreciated in the works of the different artists that represent expressionism are very varied, something that remained firm from the beginning is the predominance of subjectivity over other factors that interested the impressionists, such as proximity with the reality and the harmony of its forms. The reason for the differences between the artists lies precisely in that each one sought to capture his own vision, his unique way of seeing the scenes he painted on canvas;
* ambitAlthough expressionism occurred in various artistic disciplines, its emergence took place in painting, and it was in this context that it developed the most. Among the most prominent pictorial resources of the first examples of expressionism are sensations, dynamism and color. The beginnings of expressionism were lived with great energy, since its representatives did everything possible to spread this new current, taking his exhibitions to various cities and, over time, crossing the borders of their own countries;
* architecture: as well as painting, architecture It also had its passage through Expressionism, and this happened especially in Germany, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Czechoslovakia and Austria.