Eukaryote or eukaryote is an adjective that is used in the biology to refer to cells that have a differentiated nucleus, protected by a membrane and with organized cytoplasm. The organism made up of this type of cell is also known as eukaryote.
Eukaryotic cells have their genetic information locked within the nuclear envelope. Its cytoplasm presents interconnected organelles whose limits are set by biological membranes. The most conspicuous compartment of protoplasm is the core.
Eukaryotes usually contain mitochondria, which are membranous organelles that produce Energy. Some protist eukaryotes, however, no longer display mitochondria after the course of evolution. The presence of plastids in the cytoplasm, on the other hand, allows certain eukaryotes to carry out the photosynthesis.
Despite the variety of eukaryotes, these cells share the same biochemical composition and a homogeneous metabolism, a fact that represents an important difference with respect to the prokaryotes, the cells whose genetic material is found in various organelles.
It should be noted that organisms eukaryotes constitute the domain Eukarya, which includes beings from the four kingdoms: animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Most of the now extinct specimens, studied by paleontologists, belonged to this domain.
Regarding their reproduction, eukaryotes are capable of dividing asexually (a phenomenon known as mitosis), although in general they go through processes reproductive reproductive systems that are based on meiosis and are not seen in prokaryotic cells. To reproduce, eukaryotes alternate haploid generations, where only one copy of each chromosome is found, and diploids, which have twice as many.
To pass from the first to the second type of generation, it is necessary to go through nuclear fusion, or fertilization, and return to the first through meiosis. This is not to say, on the other hand, that there are not certain important differences between eukaryotes. It is worth mentioning that, compared to prokaryotes, their metabolism rates are lower and the time they need for generation is longer, and their surface area is not as representative of their volume.
Continuing with the reproductive process, it should be mentioned that it can take place in three well differentiated ways:
* bipartition: Consists of the division of a cell in other two that are absolutely equal;
* budding: when a kind of tumor forms in a cell, which grows for a time until it becomes an independent cell;
* sporulation: a cell begins by dividing its own nucleus into smaller copies, and finally does the same with its cytoplasm, so that more cells are formed.
In eukaryotic cells one or two specimens of a structure known as flagellum. It is possible to distinguish two patterns of relationship between cells and their flagella: the acroconta move behind their flagella (s), while the opistoconta move behind it. The latter occurs in the kingdom of fungi and animals, and it is possible to notice this behavior in a sperm of our species.
Eukaryotic flagella belong to a group of structures known as undulipodia, where cilia are also counted. A basic difference between the two is that the flagella become larger, since they are complicated by other added structures. Basically, both flagella and cilia have a cylindrical and even appearance throughout its body and with its rounded ends. Its nucleus, which has a structure called anoxema, is covered by a tissue plasmatic, which allows the cell’s cytoplasm to penetrate and access it.