Economic geographyThe Greek word geography derived in the Latin term geography, etymological antecedent of geography. This concept is used to name the science that is dedicated to describing the planet Earth.

The Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) recognizes in its dictionary various branches of geography, which focus on specific questions within the field of study of this science: the political geography, the historical geography, the botanical geography and the zoological geography, among other. The enumeration performed by the RAEIn any case, it is incomplete since specializations are lacking; among them, the economic geography.

This branch of geography is dedicated to study of the location, distribution and organization of economic activities in the space. Experts in this field analyze what activities are carried out in each region, how they are developed, how they affect the environment, etc.

It is common for the geographical space influence economic activity. According to the geographical characteristics at your disposal, the human being usually develops certain practices to obtain their livelihood. In turn, it will organize and exploit natural and spatial resources in one way or another.

When analyzing the operation of a economy Free market, prices are usually considered to be established from the game of supply and demand. However, many experts emphasize the importance of taking into account the spatial variable to include the cost of transporting the product to the consumer and vice versa, which can be measured in money and time. In this framework, economic geography is very important to optimize this analysis.

The way in which the products It also varies according to the relationship that exists between the economic activities on which they depend and the space in which they are carried out. In this context we speak of several economic sectors that comprise a classification established in accordance with the criteria adopted by each country. These sectors are defined below.

Primary sector

Economic geographyThis is the set in which all those activities that are characterized by the extraction of goods and natural resources. Among the most common are fishing, agriculture, mining, water harvesting, energy production and forestry. All of them are closely linked to the rural environment and make up the fundamental supply of inputs and resources for the rest of the activities.

Secondary sector

This group includes the activities through which the goods and resources that are extracted from the natural environment are transformed. They are processes developed mainly in cities, where there are labor and potential consumers. It covers all economic activities that are related to the transformation of food products, in addition to other goods.

Third sector

The third sector that recognizes economic geography includes activities that result in non-tangible products, although this does not mean that they are used as part of economic transactions. For example, we can mention banking, tourism, transport and trade. Since its nature is not materialThey are not linked to specific spaces, although in urban areas they present a better display.

Quaternary sector

In this economic sector we find the services considered intellectual, such as the developing, innovation and research. Until a few years ago, it was included in the tertiary sector, although since it has become so important it was necessary to differentiate it from it. The industries that we find in the quaternary sector are information technology, high technology and telecommunications, as well as education, scientific research and consulting.