A disorder language is a disturbance that threatens the linguistic communication. These disturbances affect the person in linguistic matters (whether to produce, encode, decode and / or understand messages) and in other aspects, such as academic performance.
Among the language disorders we can find the dysortography or dyslexic dysgraphia. It is an anomaly linked to the orthography that leads the individual to face difficulties in writing correctly.
Dysorthography, therefore, does not alter the spelling wave trace of words. What it does is influence how the subject writes the terms in terms of spelling rules.
There are several causes that can cause dysorthography, such as problems in auditory, visual or spatio-temporal perception; inconveniences to articulate the phonemes; or an intellectual deficit. Dysorthography can even be due to a pedagogical reason or lack of motivation.
When dysorthography affects the conversion of phonemes (sounds) to graphemes (written characters) or to phonological creation, we speak of natural dysorthography. On the other hand, if it is associated only with the spelling rules, it is arbitrary disortography.
Although dysorthography is not a problem whose severity puts the health of the subject at risk, it can considerably hinder their development in society. In the student arena, for example, aptitude tests are common, and a writing-related chart can put you at a disadvantage early on. To get a job, from the preparation of the curriculum to the writing of business documents, the lack of control about spell checking.
Let’s look at some of the most common symptoms of dysorthography, which we sometimes overlook believing that they are not worthy of importance or we attribute them to a lack of will on the part of the person who exhibits them:
* phoneme substitution: this can occur because two phonemes are articulated in a similar way, something that happens with pairs fy , pyb or tyd, among other;
* omission: sometimes a consonant of a pair belonging to the same syllable is omitted («cata» instead of «letter»), other letters are omitted that lose force when pronouncing the word (the final ‘s’ of plurals) or whole syllables are well removed. Another very common case is omission of the letter ‘h’, since in our language it is silent unless it is after the ‘c’. The most striking is the omission of an entire word;
* addition: they are cases similar to the previous ones, but opposite. Sometimes letters are added (“albeldrío” instead of “albedrío”), other syllables are added (“tomatate” instead of “tomato”) and others, complete words;
* investment: the order of two letters (“burto” instead of “gross”), of two syllables (“cacebera” instead of “header”) or of two words is exchanged;
* substitution by resemblance: those letters that are graphically very similar can be confused in a case of disortography (the ‘b’ and the ‘d’, the ‘q’ and the ‘p’);
* confusion of words: in this case the meanings are different depending on the phoneme, as happens with “bounce” and “vote.”
Treatment of dysorthography can be carried out in different ways. According to specialists, it is key that the pedagogue helps the person to develop mechanisms to fix and evoke the correct writing of words. It is also essential to encourage exercises and practices to achieve retention of the rules.
Before defining the treatment, it is key to determine the type of dysorthography. Failures can be registered in the spelling acquisition, the language articulation, etc., whereby assistance should focus on different aspects.