The etymological history of adjective drunk starts in bibĕre, a Latin verb that can be translated as “to drink”. This word derived in bibĭtus, which in turn became a term that has already been deprecated: beudo. Finally we come to the notion of drunk, which refers to who is drunk.
A drunk individual, therefore, is drunk. This means that it is a person who has consumed a excessive amount of alcoholic beverages and that it has suffered different consequences in its organism due to this action. For instance: “Gentleman, I cannot serve you any more brandy: you are drunk and must not continue drinking”, “You’re drunk again! You have to learn to control yourself “, “A drunk driver caused a tragedy on the Camino del Centro”.
When a person is drunk frequently, it can be said that he suffers alcoholism. This concept is linked to a organic dependence on alcohol: if the drinker does not consume, he suffers the so-called withdrawal syndrome (characterized by a series of physical reactions that appear when the substance of which the addiction is not ingested).
Alcohol abuse creates numerous problems in the body and in the psyche of the drunkard, even before the addiction is triggered. Once the drink takes effect, the person may become impulsive, feel dizzy and nauseous, have a headache, be drowsy, or even lose consciousness. At one extreme, consumption can lead to death from cardiorespiratory arrest. That is why all doctors recommend limiting the intake of alcoholic beverages.
All this can be seen in one of the meanings of the term that we frequently find in dictionaries: «person whose physical and mental capacities have been temporarily seen altered due to excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages ».
Precisely, drunkenness does not allow us to make full use of our faculties or our body, and this usually leads to embarrassing situations that once the effect of alcohol has passed, generate deep regret in the subject, or infractions of the law that lead to it. to have problems with the Justice.
In this case, it is important that we are referring to a state adjective, for which it must be conjugated with the verb be and not with the verb to be. The reason is that this meaning of the word drunk reflects a condition current and temporary nature of the subject, which will probably change in relation to temporal factors, place or even due to the influence of other events in its environment. This group of adjectives are used to describe a state of mind, an emotion or a behavior.
At the other extreme are adjectives that reflect a way of being, a personality trait that does not change but rather serves to distinguish an individual from others, and here we must use the verb to be. For example: from prayer “Juan is a very happy person, he is always seen smiling and with positive energy” We can understand that Juan is characterized by his joy, which we will generally see in said condition. If, on the contrary, we said “When we arrived, we noticed that Juan was drunk”, we refer to a passing state that does not represent it.
If we want to refer to a person’s alcoholism, then we must use the verb to be, both with the adjective and with the noun drunk, so that the persistence in time of the consumption excessive alcoholic beverages. For instance: “My father is drunk and refuses to accept help to overcome his problem”, “I don’t know what to do anymore, because he doesn’t admit to being a drunkard”.