It is known as diarchy to the government Which they exert two monarchs simultaneously. The term refers to the authority that is divided between two powers, institutions or individuals.
In a diarchy, two rulers are in charge of administering the Condition. This form of government was in force in Rome, Sparta and other companies of the Antiquity and it can also be found in the present in various regions.
Typically, diarchy arises if there is no can that stands out and, within this framework, the two most strongly agree to work together. This is how they manage to manage public affairs.
In periods of the Ancient Rome, for example, two consuls had the responsibility to alternate at the head of the army and from government. The sparta diarchy, meanwhile, arose around the 8th century BC. A political reform caused that this polis began to be administered by a couple of kings or diarcas, one that was part of the dynasty of the Eurypontids and the other, from the group of Agiad.
Precisely, the joint reign of the Eurypontids and the Agiads is a clear example of diarquia in ancient Sparta, one of the most important polis of ancient Greece, in addition to Corinth, Thebes and, of course, Athens. With regard to the Eurypontids we can say that they were a dynasty founded by the third king of Sparta, Euripon, who used her name as the basis for baptizing her.
Euriponte, also called Euripon, was the twin brother of Agis I, another important Spartan king, who founded his own dynasty: that of the Agiad. While the dynasty of the Euripontes is considered of source Achaean, the Agiad were of Dorian origin. Both terms correspond to two of the following four ancient Greek tribes: the Ionians, the Aeolians, the Achaeans, and the Dorians.
Returning to the Roman Empire, historians often cite a diarchy dating from the origins of Rome, and it is the one composed by Romulus and Titus Tacio. It arose after the war with the Sabines, an ancient people prior to the Empire that is related to the Ligurians, the Ecuos, the Latins and the Etruscans, among others.
In a previous paragraph a Roman diarchy made up of two consuls. Although in theory both had the same rights and dignities, in practice the management of power used to be different. It is enough to study the diarchy of Julius Caesar Y Marco Calpurnio Bibulus: the first surpassed in charisma the second, who took refuge in his home instead of fighting. This lack of commitment and action on one of its parts gave rise to the nickname “the consulate of Julius and Caesar.”
The Republic of San Marino It is a case of diarchy in the XXI century. It’s about a enclave whose lands are surrounded by the surface of Italy. In San Marino, citizens elect members of parliament: the Great and General Council.
This legislative body, in turn, selects two of its members to act as regent captains. Both captains regents serve as bosses of State for six months, with which it can be said that San Marino it is a diarchy.
One of the concepts associated with diarchy is duunvirate. It is not a synonym, although its meaning is related by some of its characteristics: it is a alliance carried out by two leaders of the army or political forces. A clear example of today is the Principality of Andorra, an independent state in the south-west of the European continent, since it is a duunvirate made up of two co-princes: the bishop of Urgel and the president of the French Republic.