Is named dialectology to the analysis of dialects. A dialect, meanwhile, is a linguistic variety that does not get to have the language category.
It is important to mention which dialect and language (or idiom), however, are somewhat fuzzy concepts of limits. A language is a verbal communication system that usually has writing and that is typical of a human group. A dialect is generally considered to arise from some kind of variation of a language.
Dialectology, in this framework, studies the varieties or linguistic modalities that are detected in a community, comparing them. Thanks to the research work of linguistic geography and sociolinguistics, since the 19th and 20th centuries respectively, today we know that all variations can be classified into four large groups: social, geographical, stylistic and historical.
According to dialectology, social variations of a language are linked to the characteristics of each social class when speaking. The geographic variations, for their part, have to do with the linguistic elements that are used according to the region, while the stylistic variations They are associated with the different situations that people face. The historical variationsFinally, they are due to the changes that occur throughout the weather or according to age.
Taking up the variations social studies that studies dialectology we can say that the emergence of classes and strata in all human societies is logical. This results in individuals from different socio-economic, religious or ethnic groups prioritizing relationships with others who are in their same groups. In this way, speech becomes homogeneous among them, particularly in socioeconomic ones, and thus differences appear with those detected in the others.
A classic example can be seen when studying the variants of the language used by upper-class and working-class people in each society. The traits that differentiate them may go unnoticed by speakers, but they are the subject of study by language academies and are often used to feed discrimination against the less educated portion of the population. population: the idea that the working class does not speak with the same level of correction as the high.
Is that social variation is strongly linked to several factors that make it especially complex, since it combines age with sex and level of education. In this way, the same individual presents different traits in his use of the language throughout his life because of his interests linked to the stage of their development, their academic training and the sex with which they feel identified.
Dialectology also focuses on the study of certain traits phonetics, lexical forms or turns that predominate in each group and that attract its members to include them in their way of speaking. For this to take place it is necessary that they feel identified with those who use them, so it does not matter that they are exposed to the traits of another group. Adolescents, for example, tend to resist the ways of speaking of their elders and, instead, tend to copy those of their peers.
In a broad sense, it can be said that a dialect is a subdivision of a language. Dialectology is in charge of considering these structuring, detecting common points and differences.
Linguistic variation is the object of study of dialectology, whose approach is interdisciplinary since it allows the use of multiple methodologies. Keep in mind that the variations can be investigated from different points of view.