The notion of Creole refers to the Creole characteristic. The term is also used to refer to the position leading to exaltation of the properties of the Creole.
Before moving on, it is important to know what the idea of Creole. A Creole individual is one who was born in a former European colony in America and that it is descended from Europeans. Sometimes, the Creole is specifically a black subject born in an American territory that belonged to Spain.
In the broadest sense, a Creole is someone who was born in a Spanish-American nation, as opposed to a European or other continent immigrant. By extension, the Creole is something typical of these countries.
Returning to the concept of criollismo, it usually refers to a movement of the literature that emerged at the end of XIX century and was consolidated at the beginning of twentieth century focusing on Creole customs. Although he has different features depending on the region, in general his works coincide in highlighting the fight against oppression.
Criollismo usually realistically describes the living conditions of the blacks, the gauchos and the aborigines. It is important to bear in mind that, in its origins, the independence of the former colonies was still recent.
In Cuba, for example, criollismo focused on Cuban identity, with Alejo Carpentier as one of its references. On the other hand, authors of criollismo in chili, What Gabriela Mistral, detailed the daily difficulties of those who lived in communities rural.
Popular legends, use of idioms, the preponderance of the autochthonous and the sociological claim are some of the distinctive qualities of criollismo.
That term, indigenous, is key when talking about criollismo. Since the second half of the 16th century the word Creole to refer to the children of Spaniards born in the American continent, in a land that would have been dominated by Spain and turned into Suburb. It goes without saying that throughout his life, a Creole did not feel a single well-defined identity, but had to combine his two origins, his two languages, the cultural differences of his parents and the violence that had originally united them.
The Creole did not speak the same as the Spanish born and raised in Europe, nor were their respective baggage cultural In the 18th century, the differences between the two became even more accentuated after the Bourbon reforms, which did not allow the Creole to access the most important positions in the Church and the Government.
This gave rise to a new identity that the Creole could take refuge in his own roots, where he should not suffer contempt and discrimination on the part of those who had usurped the lands of his ancestors. Looking for the autochthonous, criollismo was consolidating little by little.
Another of the most important concepts in the context of criollismo is illustration, a cultural movement that emerged in Europe in the seventeenth century and extended until the nineteenth, characterized by the predominance of reason over faith and the commitment to progress. It is also related to liberalism, which served as the basis, since it defends individual freedoms.
The development of cities in Latin America was boosted by the waves of immigration that arrived between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and that is why it represented modernity but also the foreigner. At the other extreme, rural life is understood as a symbol of the national people, of what is their own, of what had always been there, and that is why the criollismo appreciates it so much. In his literature, both the characters and the customs of the field, preciously for not having been “modernized.”