Before proceeding to analyze in depth the meaning of the term denunciation that we are now dealing with, we must establish that it has its etymological origin in Latin. This is demonstrated by the fact that it is made up of three clearly differentiated Latin parts that testify to it: the prefix from-, which can be translated as “deprivation”; the verb I will announce, which is synonymous with “making known”; and the suffix –ia, which is equivalent to “quality”.
Complaint is the action and effect of reporting (warn, notify, declare the irregularity or illegality of something, report). The complaint can be made before the corresponding authorities (which implies the implementation of a judicial mechanism) or publicly (only with testimonial value).
For instance: “A new complaint complicates the mayor accused of corruption”, “A mother filed a complaint against her son, accusing him of abuse and violence”, “The journalist promised to go to court to formalize his complaint for threats”.
The complaint, therefore, can also be the statement and the document in which the authority of the commission is informed of a lack of or crime. It could be said that the complaint informs the authority about an offense and forces it to mobilize, first to verify that the crime exists and then to determine responsibilities and punishments.
The policeman it is usually the first body to receive a complaint. If a person walks down the street and observes how a thief assaults a woman, they usually go to the police for help and to report the criminal. Something similar happens when an individual suffers a robbery: he must approach the police station to make a report. The police will then begin to investigate and request the action of the Justice.
It is important to know that there are many types of complaints, however, among the most significant are the following:
• Anonymous. As its name indicates, it is one that is carried out by a person without disclosing their identity.
• Criminal. It is the one that comes to record that you have been a witness or victim of a specific crime. It can be done either in writing or orally, before the police.
For theft, for sale, for fraud, for violence, for abuse or for threats are other types of complaints that exist as well as those for ecological crime.
However, the police authorities consider that the complaints can be divided into two large groups:
• The administrative, which are those in which basically what is to be done is to record a fact or an action that has occurred within the administrative bosom and that goes against the law.
• The penalties. Based on the existing legislation, they are the ones that come to communicate what would be the realization of a crime or a criminal offense.
It is known as false complaint to the incorrect imputation of a crime before an authority. When the facts reported do not coincide with reality, a false report is made and a crime is committed: “Ramírez assured that he will take Gómez to court for false accusation”.