It is called collectivism to one doctrine that points to remove individual property, replacing it with the collective or communal property. Collectivism holds that the State must be in charge of distributing wealth.
According to collectivism, means of production and the enconimics goods They must not belong to private persons, but must be under the control of the whole society through the State. That is why it is claimed that collectivism opposes individualism.
As a principle of the activity carried out by all human beings, collectivism seeks to express productive relationships starting from the equal rights and avoiding exploitation. Promotes harmony between subject and society, establishing reciprocal obligations and rights.
Collectivism is positioned as a system to organize the economy and the politics of a community, giving preponderance to the group over the individual. Its premise is that the collective good it is superior to the individual good.
The collectivization of the means of production, in this framework, supposes that the government (State authorities) administer resources for the collective good. However, this is usually a matter of debate since the rulers can favor the interests of a sector.
In practice, collectivism faces great difficulties. For example, by its essence it opposes human rights, which are inherent to each individual. On the other hand, the functioning of collectivism requires leaders that represent the whole of the community, something impossible to achieve because it cancels out any divergence.
There are a great number of societies that can be indicated as examples of collectivism, either that they themselves recognize it in this way or that they are indicated in this way by others. In short, we can make the following distinction:
* the socialist states that have transformed a large part of the sectors of their economy to collectivism. These States are those that through their Constitution they declare themselves in pursuit of socialism or they move towards communism as the basis of their society;
* the Israeli kibbutz, small communes where people decide to live in order to share the right to property with others and each contribute what they do best, always thinking about the common good. In this group we must also mention some communities such as the Freetown Christiana Denmark, which enjoys autonomy and promotes the unified organization collectivist type; It is located in Copenhagen, in a former military installation.
There is a similar concept in the field of philosophy that can sometimes be confused with collectivism: the communitarianism. It emerged in the latter part of the 20th century to oppose certain traits of individualism and in favor of civil society, among others. phenomena. It should be noted that some of his ideas had already been recorded long before. While not rigidly opposed to liberalism, it focuses on community as an intermediate sovereignty.
Collectivism is often associated with socialism, mentioned above, but not in all its views. Socialism also belongs to the realm of philosophy and encompasses fields such as economics and politics. Both currents favor the group vis-à-vis the individual, and they show a special interest in the concept of collective property, opposite to private.
While in some sources we can find an almost exclusive focus on capital and land when we speak of property, whether collective or private, collectivism also points out that any well consumption should be considered public. Some of the most common examples within this last category are those of national defense, information, justice and natural ones.