The word Latin cognitio came to Castilian as cognition. This is how the act and result of knowing: know, understand.
Cognition, therefore, is linked to knowledge. Its about understanding which is reached by making use of intellectual capacities, registering the qualities and characteristics of something, establishing relationships, discovering similarities and differences with other elements, etc.
It can be argued that cognition is a faculty that living beings have for him processing of information. This information, in turn, is perceived through the senses.
The human being it is the species with the greatest capacity for cognition. People figure out how and when to pay attention, use memory, learn from experience, and reason when making decisions.
However, cognition is also present in animals and, according to certain studies, in the plants. There is even talk of cognition to refer to mechanisms that develop non-biological entities (ie artificial).
Cognition, in short, starts when an individual captures some aspect of the reality with their senses and then initiates a series of mental processes to assimilate, link, integrate, modify, order and classify the information. Thus produces knowledge.
Cognition can be understood from different points of view, and in fact its interpretation has changed throughout history. Broadly speaking, however, we can say that his structure gathers the following aspects:
* observation: it takes place when we detect the features of one or more elements and we assimilate them, especially through the sense of sight but also making use of the others. In more precise terms, it is about seeing and hearing the object of study;
* identification of variables: warn precisely the parts that make up said phenomenon that we want to study;
* comparison: it is a fundamental aspect to define with greater precision each phenomenon;
* relationship: it arises as a consequence of the previous step, leaving aside the differences instead of the links that may exist between the two;
* ordering: cognition could not be sustained if it did not order objects in the mind by various criteria;
* hierarchical classification: a relationship is established between the phenomena studied that allows them to be distinguished according to their degree of importance.
There are various Sciences and disciplines that study cognition. Among them the cognitive psychology, also known as cognitivism, which analyzes how these processes are carried out.
Cognitive psychology, in this framework, aims to unravel how the human being acquires information through senses and synthesizes, transforms, stores and uses it. It also investigates the incidence of cognition in the actions of the subjects.
The Austrian Physicist Fritjof Capra wrote in his book titled The fabric of life, the criteria that according to the anthropologist Gregory bateson are essential to the mental process and contrasted them with the theory of the philosopher Humberto Maturana. The following list of six fundamental points emerges from his work:
* the mind is a set of components or parts that interact with each other;
* This interaction relationship between the different parties takes place because of the difference;
* To carry out the mental process, it is necessary to use Energy collateral;
* Another requirement for this process to take place is the existence of circular determination chains;
* the effects of the difference must be understood as a transformation of the events that have taken place before them;
* From describing and classifying these processes into which events are transformed, a series of prototypes immanent logics that are arranged hierarchically.