The concept of climatology can be used to refer to set of properties and factors that characterize a certain climate. The term weather, meanwhile, refers to the conditions of the atmosphere that are common in an area.
For example: “Due to the weather in the province, it is common for flights to be canceled in the winter season as heavy snowfall puts the planes at risk”, “This is a very popular beach destination throughout the year thanks to its weather”, “Due to the climate of the region, the authorities have designed emergency operations to respond to eventual intense phenomena”.
Climatology is also the scientific discipline that is dedicated to analysis of weather. It is located between the Earth sciences or more precisely as a branch of the geography.
Many times there is a confusion between the weather and the meteorology. Both are oriented to the phenomena that occur in the atmosphere, although with different objectives.
The climatology seeks to know how the weather changes throughout the weather, focusing on its characteristics in the long term. The meteorology, instead, it aims to investigate the modifications that are continuously recorded in the atmosphere, thus being able to carry out short-term forecasts.
This means that, thanks to the weather, it is possible to speak of the different climates that exist in the Land, As the polar climate or the tropical climate, for example. From the weather, meanwhile, we can know if it will rain tomorrow or what temperature is expected for the weekend.
When we speak of “long term” we really mean periods of very extensive time, since the climate usually maintains a certain regularity during many years. In some cases, its stability can cover entire geological periods, so we are talking about tens of millions of years.
The study of climatology requires observation of the atmosphere over a long period of time. The minimum period established by the World Meteorological Organization It is thirty years, although some specialists assure that it should be longer, even greater than one hundred, to obtain data more reliable.
This science, which currently enjoys an academic structure, originated like all the others, from the concerns of the first scholars. In this particular case, we must mention Claudius Ptolemy, a 2nd century Greek scientist who became interested in various fields, including astronomy, mathematics, and geography. One of his most important written works is entitled precisely Geography, and in one of its three parts it speaks of the variation of the climate of our planet that can be observed between one area and another.
Since the climatology allows us to know the characteristics that the climate in each area will have for a long time until considerable changes are registered, humans take advantage of this knowledge to plan and develop many of their activities. Just as meteorology allows us to know if it is convenient to take the umbrella to work, the weather indicates the best land to grow certain species of vegetables, for example, something that directly benefits the farming.
In this context there is the concept of topoclimate, one that is registered on a hillside, a city or a region, for example, and that differs from the area itself. This can take place when a geographical factor (hydrography, geomorphology, etc.) of the set of environmental conditions in which the communities Vegetables affect the local climate. If it cannot be subdivided, then it is called microclimate; for example: under the canopy of a tree or inside a room.