Medicine defines nervous system As the woven fabric that takes care of capturing and processing stimuli so that the body can specify an effective interaction with the environment. This means that the nervous system has a sensitive role (for receiving both internal and external stimuli), a integrating function (for analyzing the signals captured, saving information and formulating a reaction) and a motor function (muscle movement or glandular secretion in response to stimuli).
Interestingly, the nervous system can be segmented as Central Nervous System (area that encompasses the spinal cord and brain) and how peripheral nervous system (where the cranial nerves and spinal nerves are located).
With regard to the brain, we have to establish that it is divided into three clearly differentiated parts: the forebrain or forebrain, the midbrain, which is also called the middle brain, and finally the rhombencephalon, which in the same way is known as the hindbrain.
The central nervous system (also identified by the acronym CNS) is protected by membranes known as meninges and by bone structures (the skull protects the brain, while the spine covers the marrow). The cells that make up the CNS, on the other hand, are grouped into the so-called gray matter (that is, the neuronal bodies) and the white matter (the nerve processes known as dendrites and axons).
What the CNS does is receive and process stimuli that collect the different senses and transmit the answers. The specialization of its cells causes the regeneration of the CNS in case of disease or accident is almost nil.
In addition to all the above, we cannot ignore the fact that the central nervous system can be affected by a series of infections that reach it through the peripheral system, the blood, a local infection or a germ that penetrates to root of a trauma of various types.
There are several conditions by which this system can be affected and among them meningitis stands out, which, as its name suggests, is an inflammation of the meninges. It can be aseptic or pyogenic.
However, there are other equally significant infections such as encephalitis. An inflammatory process is this one that can bring about neuronal death in the person who suffers from it.
And all this without forgetting cerebritis, which is a focal inflammation of the brain and its main symptoms are necrosis or swelling of certain areas.
The Alzheimer disease (the first cause of dementia), the multiple sclerosis and the Parkinson disease are some of the disorders that affect the capacities of the CNS. These problems are grouped under the name of neurodegenerative diseases, which involve a process of cell death and a reduction in the number of neurons.
Three serious pathologies to which should be added the one also known as Huntington’s disease, which is defined as a disorder both in terms of movement and also in the patient’s dementia.