A system it is an organized structure of components that maintain interrelations. These components can be physical or symbolic. Cardiovascular, for its part, is a term linked to heart and the circulatory system.
The Cardiovascular system, therefore, encompasses those structures that allow the blood and lymphatic circulation. The concept can be used synonymously with circulatory system.
Specifically, we can establish that the correct functioning of the cardiovascular system is influenced not only by the blood and the heart, but also by the corresponding blood vessels and the lymphatic system. The latter is characterized by the fact that it functions as a transport system both for the regulation of extracellular fluids and for defenses and fatty acids.
In the case of blood vessels, these can be classified into elastic arteries, arterioles, muscular arteries, capillaries, veins and venules.
Through its functions, the cardiovascular system makes the cells receive nutrients and other substances. On the other hand, the components of the system are in charge of collecting metabolic residues that are later eliminated through the air expelled during respiration and urine.
No less important is to determine that in the work process of the cardiovascular system three layers become basic elements and fundamental scenarios:
Internal This is what is known by the name of endocardium in what is the heart and intima in the blood vessels. It basically works as a metabolic unit.
Half. In the heart it is called myocardium and it is made up of different types of muscle fibers.
External Adventitia is the name it has in the aforementioned blood vessels while in the heart it is called the epicardium.
It is possible to divide the circulation of the blood into two large cycles: the major, general, or systematic circulation and the minor, central, or pulmonary circulation. The major circulation begins in the ventricle of the heart which is located on the left side, passes through the aorta artery and the arterial branches and reaches the capillary system, where it empties into one of the vena cavae to return oxygenated to the heart.
The minor circulation, on the other hand, begins in the right ventricle, crosses the pulmonary artery, is oxygenated in the alveolar capillaries and returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins.
The complete circuit of the cardiovascular system, therefore, it begins in the left ventricle and runs through the aorta artery; systemic arteries and capitals; the vena cavas; the right atrium; the right ventricle; the pulmonary artery; pulmonary arteries and capillaries; the pulmonary veins; the left atrium; and returns to the left ventricle.
In addition to all the above, it must also be emphasized that there are a large number of diseases that affect the cardiovascular system. Among them stands out, for example, the acute myocardial infarction which is commonly known as a heart attack.
However, among the most frequent pathologies that affect this system are also angina, stroke, atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure or aneurysm. This consists of a dilation of one of the blood vessels that occurs as a result of a weakening of what is the vascular wall.