Bunker It is an English term that, in its original sense, referred to the deposit of coal present in a boat. In German language, the concept began to be used to name the place that provides protection before a attack.
This last meaning is the one that Castilian collects in the word bunker. We understand by bunker or bunker, therefore, a kind of shelter or from fortification used for defensive purposes.
For instance: “The general believes that enemies will arrive at our bunker in the next few days “, “Archaeologists were surprised to discover a hitherto unknown bunker under the center of Berlin”, “I will only leave the bunker when the danger has passed”.
The bunkers they are usually constructions developed with materials very resistant. They are generally located underground or hidden to minimize the possibility of impact from bombs or missiles.
Among the most famous bunkers in history, it is worth highlighting the one that came to be called the Führerbunker, which was located under the city of Berlin and whose objective was to protect the high command of the Nazi government and army during World War II.
Adolf Hitler was the one behind the decision to set up that place, which was built at a depth of about 9 meters, which interconnected with another called Vorbunker and which had spaces such as offices, conference rooms and even rooms or hall of doctors.
Moreover, in the last moments of the war, the Führer took refuge in him from January 16, 1945. There it became known that he married Eva Braun for later, when he was clear that the end of his life had come. power, commit suicide in her company.
Currently that construction is closed and forgotten, located under what is now a square.
Although the usual thing is that they are associated with the military (to be used in the middle of a war or in the face of an attack), a bunker can also be built and used by anyone from civil society. In this way, there are people who build bunkers in their house to protect themselves from possible environmental catastrophes or even some eventual nuclear tragedy.
This would be the case, for example, of the American actor Tom Cruise. And it has been announced that he has decided to build one in his house in order to protect himself from the end of the world. Specifically, he has done it under his mansion in Beverly Hills, possibly influenced by his religion: Scientology.
And it is also that the ecclesiastical institution that supports it, which some consider a sect, has also created several bunkers in different corners away from the big cities and in the middle of nature.
Hiring a company specialized in the construction of bunkers capable of withstanding nuclear disasters not only requires a investment financially impossible for most pockets, it also brings with it a number of legal issues that not everyone can deal with. But there are many people who choose an easier path, although not always as effective: build their own bunker.
First of all, it is necessary identify the type of problem we want to combat by building a bunker: it is important to note that the options homemade They cannot offer the degree of protection of a high-tech military bunker, but they are useful against certain catastrophes natural and human attacks.
One of the first alternatives to the industrial bunker is to improvise one with elements already built, such as a warehouse or a parking lot. There are various ways to reinforce these spaces, such as by using wooden planks, earth bags, steel beams and double walls; It is not only accessible at an economic level but also takes advantage of structures and readily available materials.
Another very popular option is the corrugated steel bunker, a material used in civil works to manufacture safe structures. It can be obtained in sheets or bars, and is capable of absorbing the impact of a vehicle. Its use became popular in the Second World War; in London, for example, the well-known Anderson Shelter (built with this same material) for free to protect the population, and saved the life of thousands of people.
The marine containers commonly seen in ports are also a relatively inexpensive solution to having a sturdy structure when building a bunker. They can be found cheaply second-hand and are easy to transport and modify; for example, many transform them so that they can be connected to other containers. A common practice in this case is to bury the bunker, either by covering it and creating an access or by leaving its roof at the height of the ground.
Other uses of the bunker notion are more symbolic and refer to the space where members of a political party meet or another type of organization: “The socialist candidate will wait for the election results in his party’s bunker”, “The militants gathered at the door of the Bunker of the Liberal Party to celebrate the triumph”.