It is called biotypology to science that is dedicated to study of biotypes. To understand the notion, therefore, one must first focus on the concept of biotype.
With etymological origin in scientific Latin biotypus, in turn derived from the Greek words bios (which translates as “life”) and guys (that is to say, “kind”), the term biotype is used in the biology and in the psychology. In the first case, the biotype is called characteristic shape of a plant or animal, which is taken as model of its kind or species.
The cattle raising, for example, resorts to the use of biotype to refer to the characters that are common to a set of individuals. These characteristics make the specimens suitable for a particular production. Biotypology, in this way, investigates the different biotypes and their properties.
As mentioned above, plants are also divided into various biotypes, and that is why their study is necessary for a correct classification. Like any other living being, vegetables must adapt to the environment, to the climatic conditions and to the rest of the organisms that surround them. As part of this process, different external characters of type structural and morphological.
These outstanding characters are grouped into categories that are essential to know the formations and colonies of plants on our planet, and are nothing other than the so-called biotypes. The range of complexity with which biotypes can be classified is quite broad, but it starts from biological forms that anyone can recognize in a plant, such as tree and bush.
In 1929, for example, the Spanish naturalist Emili Huguet i Serratacó classified plant species according to their habitat, and thus gave rise to biotypes such as the following: xerophytia, psychrophytia and limnophytia, among others. Huguet also devoted himself to geography and was noted for his many innovations; For example, he was the first to bring to his country the fields of edaphology and geobotany. Despite his contributions, he never worked in academia.
Another relevant work for the biotypology of plants is the Raunkiær system, which categorized the biological forms according to the location of the shoots, that is, the point at which they grow. Building on their research, which was published in the mid-1930s, other scientists followed in their footsteps and fed their theories with new perspectives.
For the psychology, a biotype is a personality linked to a certain morphological structure. Biotypology, in this framework, is the discipline that examines people taking into account their psychic and physical traits in an integrated way, characteristics that are manifested in their behavior and ways of acting.
The german doctor Ernst Kretschmer (1888-1964) proposed a method of biotypological classification in his book “Constitution and character” which was erected as a reference. This specialist distinguished between three typologies according to the temperament (there are individuals slimy, cyclothymic and schizothymics) and four typologies according to physical (dysplastics, athletic, picnics and leptosomatic). He also established relationships between these categorizations.
Criminology, a science that focuses on the study of the causes and situations of crimes, also takes advantage of the concept of biotypology. In this case, it is said that the physical traits of a person are linked to the psychological ones.
Since its inception, criminology has tried to find an explanation for the criminals’ conduct. Precisely, the biological school indicates that it originates in a series of biological alterations in the person. Criminal biotypology studies the individual as a whole, including his or her physiology, its morphology and his psychology.