The etymological root of bifid It is found in the Latin word steak. The concept is used as an adjective to qualify what has a fork or, in the field of biology, to what is found split into two sectors or portions.
It is known as spina bifida to a spinal malformation, also called spine. This malformation is congenital: it is already present at the time of birth.
It should be remembered that the spine is the axis of the skeleton of vertebrates. It is made up of various short bones called vertebrae, which are articulated with each other. In the case of spina bifida, the spine has a protrusion (a fragment that goes beyond its normal limits) at its end.
Spina bifida occurs when, at the end of the first month of embryonic life, the neural tube does not close completely. With the passing of weather, the last vertebrae of the spine do not close completely either, which generates the aforementioned protrusion.
Although many times its cause cannot be determined, it is common for spina bifida to develop when the mother carried a reduced level of folic acid in the months before pregnancy. Another fact to keep in mind is that it is not a hereditary disorder.
Spina bifida can be open (also called cystic) or hidden. In the case of open spina bifida appears as a lump on the back. The spina bifida occultInstead, it is usually seen as a spot or dimple and the person you may not notice this condition.
Some of the possible consequences of spina bifida, which can be partially reversed through surgical intervention, are the following:
* accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, a phenomenon known as hydrocephalus and that, for its part, carries a high degree of pressure on the tissues of the brain that can damage it. This liquid is also called cerebrospinal and bathes the spinal cord and brain. One of its main characteristics is that it has no color;
* various neurological disorders that are often related to hydrocephalus;
* a disease called Arnold Chiari malformation, which is characterized by the downward movement of a part of the cerebellum, although sometimes of almost all its mass, by the greater occipital foramen. This compresses the brainstem and can occur in conjunction with an increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull;
* a disorder called syringomyelia, which consists of the formation of a cyst inside the spinal cord, known as syrinx, which extends and expands over time, being able to destroy the central part of the medulla. Given the connection that exists between it and the nerves of our extremities, it is common for stiffness, weakness and pain in the shoulders, legs, arms or back to appear;
* difficulty concentrating, vision problems and memory disorders;
* anomalies in the locomotor apparatus;
* muscle paralysis or weakness;
* decreased sensitivity in the area below the injury (in some cases, it may be total);
* alterations in the control of the intestine and the genito-urinary system, which can manifest in the form of incontinence, both bladder and fecal, or in the opposite situation, that is, retention. How poor bladder emptying often leads to infections urinary tract, it is normal for the patient to undergo a catheterization.
The forked tongue, on the other hand, consists of a bifurcation of the organ. The snakes They have a forked tongue naturally, while there are human beings who undergo an operation to achieve this characteristic.