With origin in the Latin word bestiarius, bestiary is a concept that is used with reference to collections of texts and illustrations of animals, whether real or from the realm of fantasy, which were made in the Middle Ages.
The medieval bestiaries, therefore, they gathered information on different beasts. They generally focused on the description of these creatures, also including lessons on morals. The characteristics of the animals that were mentioned were usually based on religious reasons: that is why they were more symbolic than scientific texts.
Existed royal bestiaries, about animals that were considered positive (such as eagles and lions) or negative (pigs, snakes), Y fantastic bestiaries, which were oriented to mythological beasts such as centaurs or dragons.
The earliest known bestiary is the Physiologus, by anonymous author. This bestiary would have been written between the 2nd century and the 4th century in Alexandria. From XII century are plays began to become popular in countries like France and England.
One of the best known bestiaries is the Aberdeen Bestiary, of English origin. It is a compilation of other bestiaries integrated into chapters of the Genesis and with numerous illustrations.
Another use of the notion of bestiary is associated with gladiators who, in the Roman circus, they faced ferocious animals. These bestiaries could be prisoners of war, young people who specialized in the handling of weapons or professionals dedicated to participating in these shows in exchange for money.
“Bestiary”Finally, it is the title of several plays artistic, among them a famous book of stories of the Argentine Julio Cortazar.
It was in 1951 when this book was published, which was the first to be released under his name. And it is that before he had already made a publication but under a pseudonym, specifically with that of Julio Denis.
There are several stories that shape “Bestiary”: “Letter to a young lady in Paris”, “Far”, “Bus”, “Headache”, “Circe”, “The gates of heaven”, “Bestiary” …
Within the literary field, we have to highlight other works that also have the term we are analyzing in their titles. This would be the case, for example, of “Bestiary of Madrid. The mystery of the red book ”. It is a novel written by Nieves Rosendo, which takes as its protagonist little Carmen.
In the Ateneo of the Spanish capital he will meet a librarian who goes by the name of Lope. Man to forget there a red book. Upon realizing this, Carmen goes out in search of him to give him the book. However, in doing so you will come across a totally different city. And you see a lion walking down the street, the fountains come to life, you can talk to the trees …
Bestiario is also the name of a fashion store in Madrid, specifically located in the well-known Vallecas neighborhood, or of an information display company in Barcelona. And that without forgetting that this is also called a coffee bar in the city of Seville, located in the heart of the city.