Ballot is a term derived from the French word ballottage. The notion refers to the second vote It is carried out in certain electoral systems, in which voters must choose between the two candidates who received the most votes in the first round. The ballot is an electoral institution that belongs to French law, in its constitutional and electoral branches.
Also called Second round, the ballot is carried out when none of the candidates for public office reaches the minimum votes required wave difference with his opponents required by the electoral law. In this way, the two most voted go to this second electoral round, while the other candidates cease to be part of the process. Citizens, therefore, can only choose to vote between the two most voted candidates in the previous instance.
As a curious fact, we must point out that the original term of the French language, ballottage, derives from a verb that can be translated as “vote using balls” (ballotter).
Suppose that, in a country X, for a candidate for president to be proclaimed in the first electoral round, he must obtain the fifty% or more of the votes. When the elections are held, the candidate of the Democratic party harvest the 46% of the votes, followed by the representatives of the Liberal Party (39%), the Conservative Party (6%) and the Revolutionary Party (4%), plus a 5% of blank votes. According to the legislation, after this first round, a ballot is carried out among the candidates of the Democratic party and the Liberal Party. In the ballot, the candidate of the Democratic party gather the 70% of the suffrages, while the candidate of the Liberal Party reach the 30%. Thus, the candidate of the Democratic party becomes the president.
A example voting took place in the presidential elections of Argentina of 2015.. In this nation, voters had to choose between Mauricio Macri Y Daniel Scioli on a ballot. The result favored Macri with little more than 51% of the votes.
With respect to history From the second electoral round, we can say that it arose in the mid-nineteenth century, more specifically in the year 1852 when Napoleon III established the Second French Empire. From that moment, it was applied in the third Republic and – with special force – in the fifth Republic (in 1958) by means of the French Constitution.
The countries in which the ballot can be used to define an electoral process are many, including Peru, Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Costa Rica, Slovakia, Finland, Bulgaria, Portugal, Ukraine, and Poland. An even longer list contains the countries that only appeal to this measure in certain cases: Russia, Czech Republic, Syria, Turkey, Nigeria, Morocco, Cape Verde, Egypt, France, Iran, El Salvador and Ecuador, among many others.
It is possible to distinguish several types of ballot, among which the following three stand out:
* without barrier: only the candidates who have received the most votes are taken into account and the winner is decided in a second round with most simple. An example in France took place during de Gaulle’s tenure for Assembly elections;
* with simple access mechanism: when none of the candidates achieves a result greater than 50% (this is called absolute majority), the ballot is held between the two who have received the most votes. This rule can be seen in the majority of Latin American countries that apply the second electoral round;
* with compound access mechanism: For the ballot to take place, certain requirements must be met. For example, in addition to exceeding a certain percentage of votes, the candidate must have a certain amount of points above his opponent.