The concept of atony It refers to the lack from force or Energy. The term is often used in the field of medicine to refer to the muscle or tissue weakness.
The Uterine atony, in this framework, consists of the loss of vigor of the muscles of the uterus, a peculiarity that prevents the organ from contracting. This atony causes that, after childbirth, the uterus does not contract as it should to close the blood vessels.
At the time of giving birth, when the woman delivers the baby and expels the placenta, a process of uterine contraction begins to develop that minimizes postpartum bleeding. If the mechanism is not carried out, uterine atony is generated with profuse bleeding and the appearance of clots and bruises that cause pain to the woman. As if this were not enough, the lack of intervention in a case of uterine atony can lead to death.
Among the reasons that can cause uterine atony, are the following:
* lack of oxytocin, the hormone secreted by organ called hypophysis to collaborate with the contraction of the uterus and the rise of the milk;
* multiple pregnancies. This has been proven through various statistics, since in such a case the uterine fiber must acquire a greater elasticity than is necessary to deliver a single baby;
* large babies, a phenomenon that has consequences similar to those of the previous point;
* placental accreta, adherence abnormality from the placenta to the wall of the uterus. Given this problem, it has been observed that it is very difficult to extract the placenta;
* history of this same disorder;
* late delivery of the placenta, that is, when the exit of the fetal appendages and the placenta takes more than 20 minutes. This can happen for a number of reasons, such as the baby is not very full term and the placenta is too attached to the uterus to prevent it from falling out.
* a Birth very extensive, a multiple pregnancy that causes excessive distention and the presence of a benign tumor known as a fibroid.
It’s important pointing that it is not possible to prevent uterine atony before delivery, and for this reason the intervention immediate. This does not mean that the experience of professionals helps them to intuit the presence of this complication, but in general they do not have much time to act.
Many hospitals have opted for the directed delivery, which consists of administering a drug to the mother as soon as the baby has left the uterus, to promote contraction. Since atony does not always appear as soon as delivery has occurred, it is also normal to monitor the mother for a minimum of two hours, until making sure that the constants have normalized.
To treat atony, it is possible to resort to massages, the supply of drugs (such as exogenous oxytocin) or a surgical intervention, depending on the case. The massage It is the first measure that establishes the protocol to react to abnormal bleeding, and it is carried out by rubbing the gut; it can also be combined with one from inside the uterus, in what is known as bimanual maneuver.
Atony can also be gastrointestinal (usually as the effect of an operation), bladder (consequence of anesthesia, to cite one possibility) or otherwise.
Beyond the medicine, the idea of atony is used as a synonym for apathy or from unwillingness: “Adolescent atony worries psychologists”, “When they fired me, I was lying in bed for several months, a victim of atony”.