The idea of reproduction is linked to process and the result of reproducing, a verb with several meanings. In this case, we are interested in focusing on its meaning within the group of living beings: reproducing consists of conceiving a new organism that has the same biological characteristics as its parent.
It is known as sexual reproduction to the conception of a descendant from the genetic combination of two beings that are part of the same species. This is the natural mechanism used by animals (including the human being) to reproduce: requires a sexual relationship or mating to enable fertilization.
The asexual reproduction, on the other hand, it develops when, from an organism that has already reached a certain condition of maturity, a cell or part of your body is detached that allows the production of a new individual through the mitosis. This type of reproduction, therefore, does not require the participation of gametes and develops with a single parent.
There are different types of asexual reproduction carried out by animals, microorganisms and plants. In the case of animals, we can mention asexual reproduction processes such as the following:
* fragmentation: also known as cleavage, and is carried out when an animal is divided into two or more parts, all of them capable of carrying out the complete reconstruction of a organism. Although the most normal thing is that the process is carried out before the division (which is called paratomy and it is done voluntarily), sometimes it also happens after the cut (it is called architomy and usually occurs as a result of an accident);
* budding: this term derives from Latin geminus, which can be translated as “twin”, and occurs when an individual develops certain prominences, which grow, develop and give rise to new independent organisms, which have the option of separating their bodies from the parent or remaining united, so that a Suburb. This process is an unequal division (it is considered a asymmetric mitosis) and we can find it in yeasts, among other unicellular organisms.
The floors, for their part, they can appeal to processes such as:
* formation of mitospores: these spores originate through mitosis, and this form of asexual reproduction is very common in mosses, fungi, lichens Y ferns. Some mitospores travel through flagella or cilia; others travel passively by wind, water, or using animals as a means of transportation. This process can originate in a sporigenic organ (outside the plant) or within certain organs known as sporangia;
* artificial multiplication: in this case, human beings play a fundamental role. One of the techniques most common is the use of grafts, stem fragments that can be inserted into a stem or trunk of an individual of the same species or another, and is used very often for the asexual reproduction of ornamental plants and fruit trees.
Microorganisms, on the other hand, develop asexual reproduction procedures such as sporulation, which is also known as sporogenesis and it can be carried out through spores or endospores. The triggering factor for this process may be the adversity of the environment (lack of light or nutrients, for example), although it also occurs naturally as part of the life cycle.
It should be noted that asexual reproduction is more quick Y simple than sexual reproduction: however, as the offspring lacks genetic variability, it does not allow the development of selection natural since all individuals are identical.