It is called apriority to the method wave doctrine that resorts, as a system, to a priori reasoning. To understand the concept, therefore, it is necessary to analyze the idea of a priori.
This adverbial phrase is used, at a general level, to refer to what is done before studying or considering the matter in question. For philosophy, a priori it implies go from cause to effect.
According to apriorism, it is possible know something of the real universe without having to appeal to some kind of experience. Therefore exist self-evident principles that are independent of the experiences and external evidence.
At present, the science it does not usually rely on apriorism. With the scientific method, it does not seem possible to justify a concept based on statements whose validation has no link with experience. However, there are thinkers who bet on another look.
The philosopher and economist Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) was one of the defenders of apriorism, in his case applied mainly to economics. In order to Mises, the actions of the human being They can be explained by propositions postulated a priori that make it possible to understand reality, with a validity that does not require experiments.
This thinker of apriorism argued that the economyAs a science, it could not be proven or refuted with observable data. As in the logic and in the mathematics, a priori judgments are predominant in economic sciences: they work with facts that cannot be known through the senses (touch, hearing, smell, vision, taste), but through reflection.
It should be noted that this current is epistemological and can be considered as a middle point between empiricism and rationalism, so we must briefly define these three concepts before continuing. We begin with epistemology, a branch of philosophy dedicated to the study of scientific knowledge, that is, to all those events that can be verified and sustained in evidence that is collected by the theories of science.
Epistemology also aims to understand the nature, foundations, scope, and possibility of such events. It should be noted that a distinction can be made between this branch of philosophy and gnoseology, which is dedicated to studying knowledge in general, beyond science. On the other hand, today it is common to find the concept of theory of knowledge as a synonym for epistemology, as a reflection of its expansion throughout history.
With regard to empiricism we can say that it is a theory belonging to philosophy that highlights the role of experience and evidence, in particular of the perception of the senses, when forming ideas and acquiring new knowledge, and gives them a greater weight compared to everything that is acquired through tradition or come innately with us.
The other extreme, with which apriorism mediates halfway to empiricism, is rationalism, a current of philosophy that highlights the importance of reason in this process. Its development took place throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and by consensus it is said that its origin is due to the philosopher Rene Descartes, to whom the well-known expression “I think, therefore I am” is attributed.
The most important figure of apriorism is Immanuel Kant, who in the first place criticizes both postures just exposed while looking for a solution to the problem of acquiring knowledge that is not at either end. Kant also coined the synthetic a priori judgments, with knowledge that precedes experience.