The etymological root of antibiogram possibly found in the French word antibiogramme. This term, in turn, is a acronym from antibiotic (which can be translated as “antibiotic”) and the suffix –Gramme (that is to say, “-grama”).
To understand the notion of antibiogram, therefore, it is important to pay attention to the components of the concept. A antibiotic It is a substance that is in conditions of eliminate or stop the development of certain microorganisms capable of producing diseases. Termination -grama, meanwhile, refers to something graphic or written.
What is an antibiogram
An antibiogram is called a lab test that is carried out to know what is the sensitivity of a microorganism to an antibiotic. At this point it is important to mention that a microorganism, also called microbe, is a tiny, single-celled organism that can only be seen through a microscope.
What an antibiogram allows is to discover how resistant or sensitive is the microorganism when the antibiotic. Therefore, the study measures the susceptibility of the pathogen. Also called an antibiogram result of the procedure.
It should be noted that antibiotics can act in two ways. The bacteriostatic substances interrupt the development of microorganisms, while bactericidal substances provoke their death.
A resource that saves lives
Antibiotics can be produced by a living being, which is classified as natural. Another possibility is that they are made by synthesis (synthetic antibiotics) or from the chemical alteration of a compound of natural origin (semi-synthetic antibiotics).
Thanks to the discovery and manufacture of antibiotics, mortality associated with different infections. In turn, many pathogens, over time, managed to increase their ability to resist these products.
Returning to the idea of an antibiogram, this test provides information about the microorganism’s reaction to an antibiotic. So you can determine which is the proper treatment for a patient suffering from a certain infection, since it is known which antibiotic is effective against the microbe in question.
In other words, if an antibiogram reveals that a antibiotic P is effective against a microorganism X, but what a antibiotic S fails to inhibit or eliminate the growth of the microbe, the treatment indicated by the doctor should be based on the supply of the antibiotic P.
How is an antibiogram performed?
The antibiogram is indicated to determine the probability that a specific antibiotic is suitable to counteract fungal or bacterial development that causes an infection. To perform the proof, it is necessary to take a sample of the infectious focus and culture it in a specific way in order to establish which is the fungus or the bacteria that is causing the infection.
Depending on the type of infection, it may be a urine culture, a stool culture or other type. What you do is isolate the pathogens and identify them through molecular, enzymatic or biochemical tests. If the pathogens detected are not those whose response to standard treatments is already known to be positive, the antibiogram is carried out to study the susceptibility of each type of fungus or bacterium found in the sample to different antibiotics.
It must be taken into account that, in the case of virus, the analysis of sensitivity to antibiotics is carried out in a different way and is not usually referred to as an antibiogram.