According to its etymology, which leads us to the tongue Greek, the anemia alludes to “Lack of blood”. It’s about a health disorder which implies a reduced hemoglobin level and generally of Red blood cells in the bloodstream.
This state of pathological type can be detected through an analysis of blood. By studying the fluid in a laboratory, it is possible to detect if the amount of hemoglobin is lower than normal. It is important to bear in mind that anemia is not considered a disease: it is a clinical sign that can appear for various reasons.
When a person have anemia, you may feel like lacks strength and energy and that he is short of breath. This is because hemoglobin has as its main function the transport of oxygen to the different organs of the body, in addition to giving the globules their characteristic color. In this way, in the face of anemia, the organs do not access the oxygen they need for their proper functioning.
Although there are several parts of our body that collaborate with the production of red blood cells, this important task focuses mainly on the bone marrow, the tissue The soft tissue that is found inside the bones and that is used to generate blood cells.
The life span of healthy red blood cells lasts for a minimum of 90 days and a maximum of 120 days. When they reach their old age, the body is responsible for eliminating them in different ways. It is then that a hormone generated in the kidneys called erythropoietin It emits a signal that reaches the bone marrow and tells it to create more red blood cells.
Since for the creation of an acceptable number of red blood cells our body needs certain minerals, nutrients and vitamins, among which folic acid and vitamin B12 stand out, it is correct to say that the lack or insufficiency of any of them is one of the causes of anemia. The reason for this anomaly, for its part, may be one of the following:
* any alteration in the lining of the intestines or stomach that may affect the way in which nutrients are absorbed. A very common example is the celiac disease, a disease that occurs when the lining of the small intestine is damaged by eating gluten;
* deficiency in diet. We often downplay the quality or variety of the food we eat, focusing primarily on satisfying us, but the lack of responsibility in this aspect of our life is the source of many disorders, including anemia;
* a surgical procedure to remove part of the intestines or stomach.
In addition to the lack of such nutrients, anemia can arise as a result of the action of some medicines, of problems in the immune system, of the prolongation of diseases such as cancer or rheumatoid arthritis, of disorders in pregnancy or of a sudden loss of large amounts of blood.
The iron deficiency it is another of the most common causes of anemia. In this case, we speak of iron deficiency anemia and it can be due to bleeding or insufficient consumption of foods with iron. Iron deficiency anemia, for example, can appear in women who experience an alteration in their menstrual cycle.
Due to its characteristics, iron deficiency anemia is part of the so-called non-hemolytic anemias. On the other hand, when anemia is due to a hemolysis disorder that causes the level of red blood cells to fall, it is classified as hemolytic anemia.
The sickle cell anemia, the aplastic anemia and the megaloblastic anemia are other of the types known of this disease.