Analogy emanates from latin analogy although with more remote origin in a Greek word that can be translated as “likeness” or “proportion”. This Greek term was made up of three clearly differentiated parts:
• The prefix “ana-“, which is equivalent to “on or against”.
• The word “logos”, which can be translated as “word or reason”.
• The suffix “-ia”, which is used to indicate “quality”.
Analogy, therefore, is a term that indicates a relationship of likeness between different things. The concept makes it possible to refer to the reasoning that is based on the detection of similar attributes in different beings or things.
For instance: “I think the public did not understand my analogy between the gun and the microphone”, “The mayor was surprised to draw an analogy between the situation that exists in the town and that registered in the main economic centers of the world”, “I didn’t like the analogy you made between my career and Gómez’s career”.
An analogy, therefore, is a comparison between objects, concepts or experiences. When establishing an analogy, particular and general characteristics are indicated and the similarities and differences between the contrasted elements are established.
In the field of biology, the analogy is the similarity between parts that, in different organisms, present a similar function and the same relative position, although with a different origin.
For the linguistics, the analogy consists in the creation of new forms or the modification of the existing ones from the similarity with others. The grammar, for its part, appeals to the notion of analogy to refer to the formal similarity that exists between linguistic elements that fulfill the same function or that have significant coincidences with each other.
Within the scope of language, we would also have to establish that analogy is a literary device that is used to record a relationship of similarity between two objects or concepts. In this way, a clear example of this would be the following: “Failure is to defeat as success is to triumph.”
In this sense, we would have to expose, in the same way, that there are what are known as verbal analogies. These are usually a fundamental part, through various exercises, of psychotechnical tests that serve not only to determine the intellectual coefficient of a person but also his aptitude or his linguistic development.
Thus, for example, it is common for an individual who faces these tests to come across questions in which they must fill in the missing gaps with one of the words that are given as alternatives. A sample would be this: “architect is a… .as a computer is a….”.
The straightFinally, it maintains that the analogy is the method that allows a legal norm to be extended, by identity of reason, to cases that are not included in it.
In the same way, we cannot forget that there is a publication that has precisely the word that concerns us in its title. We are referring to “Philosophical Analogy”. It is a magazine that deals with philosophy as well as its research and dissemination. It was launched in 1987 and is written in Spanish.