The coenzymes are components of enzymes. Is about non-protein organic substances that participate in reactions catalyzed by enzymes.
An enzyme, meanwhile, is a protein-type molecule with the ability to catalyze chemical reactions, always within the framework of thermodynamics; in other words, it makes a chemical reaction kinetically favorable, that is, it makes it proceed at a higher rate. The action of enzymes takes place once they meet substrates, molecules that become “products.”
A coenzyme is a cofactor: a molecule which is essential in the activities carried out by enzymes. These non-protein cofactors are linked to apoenzymes (protein) to form holoenzymes.
Coenzymes undergo modifications within the framework of chemical reactions. They can give up or accept functional groups or electrons, for example, which pass from one enzyme to another.
There are coenzymes that maintain a permanent relationship with the enzyme. Others, on the other hand, only experience a sporadic union. The link it begins when a coenzyme is coupled to an enzyme, which is responsible for capturing its substrate. The enzyme then transfers electrons which the coenzyme receives. Finally, the coenzyme, already reduced, can detach from the enzyme and give up its electrons, returning to its initial state.
It is important to note that not all coenzymes accept the same types of atoms. They can receive acetyl groups, hydrogens, amines or other classes according to each case. As for the enzymes to which they adhere, there are no restrictions: the same coenzyme can bind to different enzymes.
The mononucleotide flavin (FMN) is a coenzyme. This biomolecule is synthesized by an enzyme called riboflavin kinase. The FMN it is an oxidizing agent that is involved in the transfer of one or two electrons.
The ubiquinone or coenzyme Q10, on the other hand, it is found in a large part of the equaryotic cells. This coenzyme acts in aerobic cellular respiration and allows the production of Energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate.
In recent years, the importance of Coenzyme Q10 has grown considerably, as the media and doctors have started recommending it as complement nutritional to treat various diseases, such as high blood pressure, gingivitis, some heart disorders and certain neurodegenerative problems.
It is important to note that this nutrient It is found throughout the body, although it can especially be seen in the liver, pancreas, kidneys, and heart. To obtain coenzyme Q10, one of the options is to include it in our diet.
With respect to effects of this coenzyme in our body, we can highlight its antioxidant action, similar to what vitamin E provides, although with much greater effectiveness. In addition, it can generate energy at the cellular level, which is why the abnormal feeling of fatigue is often related to a lack of coenzyme Q10.
Another function of this nutrient is that it contributes to oxygenate the organs through its participation in cell respiration. All this makes it a highly recommended supplement to strengthen the immune system and cardiovascular, among many other advantages that it offers us.
Over the years, coenzyme Q10 is depleted, and this explains that those who experience its deficit more often they are the elderly. On the other hand, there are certain factors that can accentuate its decrease: tobacco abuse, diet that does not include it in sufficient proportions, deficiency of the organism that prevents its production in adequate quantities, stress and candidiasis.
To ensure we have sufficient values, it is recommended to include in the diet whole grain cereal, vegetable oils, nuts, spinach, carrots, cauliflower, broccoli and wheat germ, among other vegetable products.