What most fundamentally aided the spread of Enlightenment ideas from Europe to America? A. the high literacy rate in American colonies B. the availability of newspapers in American colonies C. the intellectual societies established in Philadelphia D. the arrival of more European immigrants to the American colonies E. the propaganda by American intellectuals such as Benjamin Franklin


A-the high rate of literacy in American colonies


In the middle years of the 18th century (the “century of lights”), the Enlightenment cultural movement expanded rapidly from France (Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, the encyclopaedias) to the Anglo-Saxon world (which existed before and had a major influence). on the scientific and political revolution of the seventeenth century: Newton, Locke, Berkeley – who lived in America – or Hume), and especially in the Thirteen Colonies of North America, where he found a highly educated elite, a community that extremely favorable opinion, high literacy rate, and dynamic free press. The intellectual debates clearly influenced the political and social movement of the American (or “American”) revolution, leading to the establishment of an independent United States (1776). Illuminated Americans included local characters (Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams or James Wilson) and the British settled in the new nation (Thomas Paine or Joseph Priestley). Most of the so-called “original fathers” can be considered as enlightened politicians and intellectuals, who politically defended the concept of social contract, civil and political rights, and religious tolerance. The American expression is characterized by the reconciliation between reason and faith through sincere feeling, which rejected dogmas and mysticism and demanded complete separation between the churches and the State.