When reviewing the etymology of the term fingerprint, we come to the Greek word daktylos, which can be translated as finger. Fingerprint, therefore, is an adjective that refers to what digital (what belongs to the fingers).
It should be remembered that the fingers are the articulated appendages in which the foot and hand of the human being. Taking into account what is written above, the fingerprint is linked to these appendices.
The idea of fingerprint or fingerprint, in this framework, refers to the Print that leaves the fingertip on a surface when it comes into contact with it. That is why the notion is also known as Finger print.
This fingerprint is made possible by the innate lines that all persons they have drawn on the buds. The lines are unique to each individual: no two patterns are repeated. This causes fingerprints to be used as identification method.
Another name for the fingerprint is dermatoglyph, and it is important to clarify that not only human beings possess these marks, but it is also possible to notice them in chimpanzees, gorillas, koalas and squirrels, among others species.
exist sensors that allow to recognize the fingerprint of a subject thanks to the ability of the device to read and store the fingerprints. Thus it is possible to allow or deny access to a site or service, for example, through a system of permits related to fingerprints.
Access to a physical space can be controlled by a fingerprint recognition sensor. In the system it is possible to register and save the fingerprints of the person with authorized access. The system is then linked to an electronic lock that opens or keeps the door closed according to the result of the comparison of the fingerprint of the current user and the one who is allowed access: if someone with permission to enter places their finger on the sensor, the door opens; On the other hand, if someone does it without authorization, the opening does not take place.
Generally, the finger used in human identification systems is the thumb, although the index finger as well. The first technique dates from the late 19th century, and was created by the French policeman Alphonse Bertillon; later, the anthropologist and also a policeman of Croatian origin Juan Vucetich Kovacevich made certain improvements to it.
Let’s see below a classification of fingerprints according to their characteristics and the medium in which they are found or registered:
* visible: these are also known as positive, and it is about the ones that the fingers leave in a surface when they are impregnated with dyes, natural or artificial, such as ink, blood or dust, among many other substances or materials that allow the generation of a mark after the contact of the fingers with an object. To fall into this category, the fingerprint must be easy to see, without the need for research instruments;
* molded: these are those that are printed as a mold, in materials such as soap, grease or plasticine, among others that belong to the group of plastic materials;
* natural: the fingerprints, properly so called, those found on the hands of the aforementioned species;
* artificial: they are intentionally captured in a device that allows them to be studied.
The scientific discipline that is dedicated to the study of fingerprints is called fingerprint, a term that can also be written with a tilde in the second I. According to experts in the field, the techniques belonging to this discipline are the most reliable for the identification of people.