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3. What is meant by musique concrete used by Stockhausen?
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“Musical concrete” or “concrete musique” is a type of music made by mixing recorded sounds. The experimental technique is the composition of music using recorded sounds as raw materials. In 1952 Karlheinz Stockhausen composed Konkrete Etüde (Concrète Étude), the earliest work of electromechanical music tape using the concrete music process. It only lasts three and a quarter minutes.